Get information about the working papers required for employment under age 18. This paper presents a new measure of electoral democracy, or “polyarchy”, for a world sample of 173 nations from 1900 to the current based mostly on the Forms of Democracy (V-Dem) data, enabling us to address several deficiencies in extant measures of electoral democracy, resembling Freedom House and Polity.
The papers on this series mirror the views of the person authors. This web page offers hyperlinks to analysis papers and analytical displays prepared by BEA staff. Utilizing a model with housing search, endogenous credit score constraints, and mortgage default, this paper accounts for the housing crash from 2006 to 2011 and its implications for aggregate and cross-sectional consumption during the Great Recession.
We also focus on key challenges particular to applying item response principle to knowledgeable-coded cross-national panel information, explain the approaches that we use to handle these …